Aluminum is one of the necessary materials for the manufacture of new energy vehicles. At present, the amount of aluminum used in new energy vehicles is nearly 400kg/vehicle, and there is still room for expansion. Electric vehicle systems that can be made of aluminum include: panels made of plates, body frames made of extruded materials, die-castings, forgings, and castings, battery systems, anti-collision beam systems, motors and transmission systems, battery systems, etc. This article will introduce it in detail. In addition, this paper also introduces more about the new technology and new alloys of aluminum materials used in new energy vehicles. At present, all aluminum materials required for new energy vehicles can be supplied in China with guaranteed quality and quantity, but it is necessary to strengthen the research and development of materials and preparation processes with better performance.
In order to cope with the deteriorating global climate change, the United Kingdom, Norway, the Netherlands, Australia, France and other countries have proposed that in the next 20 years, a large number of current internal combustion engines will be eliminated and new energy vehicles, especially electric vehicles, will be promoted. The European Economic Community (EU) proposed that in order to meet the 2050 carbon emission target, 80% of the existing cars must be phased out and replaced by electric vehicles. It is estimated that by 2030, the proportion of electric vehicles in car sales will reach more than 50%.
Carbon emissions in China’s transportation sector account for about 10% of the total emissions, of which automobile emissions account for 7.5% of the total. In 2020, the total carbon emissions of the entire industry chain of passenger vehicles in China will be about 670 million tons, of which 74% of the carbon emissions are generated when the car is used, and 26% of the carbon emissions are from the manufacturing and processing links of the upstream industry chain produce.
1. Electric car
Replacing fossil fuel vehicles with electric vehicles requires immediate action, with China, the US and European countries leading the way. China, in particular, not only ranks first in the world in the production, sales and use of pure electric vehicles, but also leads the world in research and development. Since 2016, China’s production of new energy vehicles has ranked first in the world.
China’s new energy vehicles are on the high-speed lane of development
In China, new energy vehicles refer to pure electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles, with the former occupying an absolute dominant position. By the end of 2021, there will be more than 450 registered electric vehicle companies in China. The development of new energy vehicles is the only way for China to move from a big car country to a car power, and it is a strong growth point. Since 2011, the Chinese government has invested heavily in stimulating the development of the new energy vehicle industry, giving full play to the combination of policies, tax incentives and consumption subsidies. In addition, it has also provided financial support and standardized guidance for building a comprehensive charging infrastructure.
According to data released by the China Passenger Car Market Information Association, in 2021, the market penetration rate of China’s new energy vehicles will be about 15%, and the sales volume will reach 3 million, a year-on-year increase of about 170%. In 2021, among the 6.75 million new energy vehicles sold worldwide, China will sell about 3.3 million electric vehicles, accounting for 53%, while only 608,000 will be sold in the United States. In fact, as early as December 2019, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology announced that by 2025, vehicles driven by alternative energy sources (mainly electric vehicles) will account for 25% of China’s auto sales.
China’s new energy vehicles run all over the world
According to data from the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (hereinafter referred to as the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers) in August this year, in the first seven months of this year, Chinese auto companies exported 1.509 million vehicles, a year-on-year increase of 50.6%. In the first half of the year, China exported a total of 202,000 new energy vehicles. A year-on-year increase of 1.3 times, accounting for 16.6% of total automobile exports. Among them, the export of new energy vehicles by foreign-funded enterprises such as Tesla Motors, BMW, and Volvo Cars accounted for about 2/3, and the export of China’s own brand cars accounted for about 1/3.
From January to June this year, Tesla’s Shanghai Gigafactory exported about 100,000 vehicles, accounting for 48% of China’s total new energy vehicle exports, more than double the export volume in the same period last year. The high-quality, high-value electric vehicles manufactured by Tesla’s Shanghai factory are mainly exported to developed countries such as Europe and Australia, Japan, and Singapore. Similarly, China’s own brand new energy vehicles are also actively exploring foreign markets. Relevant data show that in June this year, among exporters of new energy passenger vehicles, Dongfeng Yijiete exported 5,445 vehicles, BYD New Energy exported 2,177 vehicles, Shenlong Automobile exported 525 vehicles, Jianghuai Automobile exported 361 vehicles, and FAW Hongqi exported 192 vehicles. .
In 2020, China will only export about 70,000 new energy vehicles, accounting for 7% of total vehicle exports. In 2021, China’s new energy vehicle exports will rise to 310,000, a year-on-year increase of 304.6%, accounting for 15% of China’s total vehicle exports. It is worth mentioning that, unlike traditional fuel vehicle export routes, the target markets for China’s new energy vehicle exports are mainly developed countries, such as Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Norway, Japan, and the United States.
According to the latest data from the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, in the first 11 months of this year, the production and sales of new energy vehicles in China reached 6.253 million and 6.067 million respectively, a year-on-year increase of 1 times, and the market share reached 25%. It is worth mentioning that China has completed the goal of “the penetration rate of new energy vehicles will reach 25% by 2025″ set in the “New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2021-2035)” three years ahead of schedule. Regarding the trend of China’s auto market in 2023, the China Automobile Association gave the following estimates: It is predicted that the total sales volume of China’s automobiles in 2023 will be 27.6 million, a year-on-year increase of 3%, of which 23.8 million are passenger cars, a year-on-year increase of 1.3%; 10,000, a year-on-year increase of 15%; 9 million new energy vehicles, a year-on-year increase of 35%. In addition, from January to November this year, Chinese auto companies exported 2.785 million vehicles, a year-on-year increase of 55.3%. In terms of vehicle types, the export of passenger cars was 2.251 million, a year-on-year increase of 57.8%; the export of commercial vehicles was 533,000, a year-on-year increase of 45.7%; the export of new energy vehicles was 593,000, a year-on-year increase of 1 times.
In recent years, some European countries have vigorously promoted new energy vehicles, increased subsidies, and lowered import tariffs, providing new space for China’s electric vehicle exports. Norway exempts buyers of pure electric vehicles from purchase tax and import tax, allows consumers to be exempted from paying 25% value-added tax, and provides supporting policies such as the right of way. Consumers of new energy vehicles in Germany can enjoy a subsidy of up to 9,000 euros. The Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden have also successively issued timetables for “banning the sale of fuel vehicles” to increase support for the new energy vehicle market.
In September this year, SAIC Motor will transport more than 1,000 MG MULAN vehicles to the port of Zebchange, Belgium, and make their debut in the European market from October. With the continuous expansion of foreign markets, a major opportunity for Chinese car companies to achieve “changing lanes and overtaking” in the global market has come. At present, all countries are supporting the development of new energy vehicles, which is a great opportunity for China’s electric vehicles to go global, and a great opportunity to realize the transformation from “Made in China” to “Chinese brand”.
China already has a number of brand enterprises with international competitiveness and innovative vitality, creating an open and competitive market environment. Taking advantage of the first-mover advantage of electric vehicles, Chinese car companies are accelerating the R&D and production layout of electric vehicles. BYD, Shanghai GM Wuling, Geely, etc. have entered the forefront of electric vehicle sales in the world. New car manufacturers such as NIO, Xiaopeng, and Ideal It is growing rapidly. Dongfeng, SAIC, and Changan have successively launched electric vehicle brands such as Lantu, Zhiji, and Jihu with the characteristics of electrification, networking, and intelligence.
BYD Auto Thailand Co., Ltd. and WHA Weihua Group Volkswagen Co., Ltd. formally signed a contract on September 8 this year to build an electric vehicle manufacturing plant in Thailand, which will be put into production in 2024, with a production capacity of 150,000 right-hand drive electric vehicles. The plant covers an area of 96 hectares. The Thai government plans to increase electric vehicle production to about 30 percent of total vehicle production by 2030. According to market research, the electric vehicle market in Southeast Asia will rise from about US$500 million in 2021 to US$2.67 billion in 2027, with a compound annual growth rate of 32.73%. Currently, Chinese automakers in Thailand include: SAIC Motor, Great Wall Motor Company and BYD Automobile Company.
Since 2020, Chinese-made cars can be seen everywhere on the streets of GCC countries. In 2021, the total sales of cars made in China in these countries will account for 10% to 15%, which is higher than that of many traditional car manufacturing companies. Saudi Arabia is also an importer of Chinese cars, and is one of the top ten Chinese car importers in the world. Middle-income and income-restricted consumers prefer the specifications and prices of Chinese cars. In 2021, sales of Chinese new energy vehicles will account for more than 10% in countries such as Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait.
Chinese cars are cheap and high quality. In 2021, a large car rental company in Bahrain will switch to Chinese cars. Most rental companies are heading in this direction, as are companies that provide cars to their employees. Chinese cars are cheaper, more reliable, and have a longer range. A Japanese mid-size sedan costs US$29,000-34,000 in Saudi Arabia, while a comparable Chinese car with much higher performance can be bought for US$19,000-22,000. The owner of a car showroom in Saudi Arabia said: The performance of Chinese cars is usually comparable to that of German and American cars, while the price is less than 1/4 of the price of German cars and 35% lower than that of Japanese cars. China’s small cars have also achieved success in safety testing and have been well received by all parties, laying a good foundation for China’s small cars.
Russia welcomes Chinese cars. Some European countries, the United States, Japan and other countries have restricted automobile exports or withdrawn from the Russian market. Under such circumstances, the only way out for Russia is to increase its own automobile production or increase imports from China. This has created a great opportunity for Chinese automobiles to be exported to Russia. A. Olikhovsky, general manager of Russian Auto House, said that the sanctions imposed by Western countries on Russia have led to a sharp decline in Russian car sales.
Although the sales volume of Chinese cars in Russia is not large at present, its market share has been increasing year by year, and the prospect is bright. There are more than 80 export car brands in China, among which Geely, Haval, Chery and Changan are popular in Russia. Olikhovsky said: “The increasing popularity of Chinese cars in Russia is not only because they are more affordable compared with other car brands, but also because of the technological changes that the cars themselves have undergone. Their unique original designs and advanced craftsmanship Both are leading the world trend. With excellent configuration, Chinese cars outperform Korean, Japanese and European brands in terms of comfort and safety. In addition, Chinese automakers are very flexible and customer-oriented, adjusting models according to the needs of Russian customers shape.”
Experts believe that Chinese companies that are currently leaders in the Russian market have great potential. But in the long run, only the localization of production can ensure leadership. Currently, the prospects of Harvard and Geely are the most respected in the industry. Harvard will set up a factory in Tula in 2019 with an investment of 1.5 billion US dollars. The current production capacity is 80,000 vehicles per year, and the planned production capacity is 150,000 vehicles per year. Geely has a car assembly plant in Belarus. In addition, Hongqi is also about to build a factory in Russia, and it is likely to be an electric vehicle.
Chinese electric buses are popular all over the world, and even Japan, the automobile kingdom, has introduced electric buses from China. In December 2021, Kyoto City and Keihan Electric Railway will introduce 4 Chinese electric buses in the city circulation bus, hoping to promote Japanese companies to catch up. In the Kansai area of Japan, Hankyu buses in Osaka Prefecture have also operated Chinese buses since April this year. According to statistics from the International Energy Agency, about 90,000 electric buses will be sold globally in 2021.
In December 2021, the 26th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP26) will be held in Glasgow, UK. BYD provided more than 120 electric buses for the transportation of the conference. This series of electric buses has achieved fast charging through improved technology, and its operating performance and ride comfort are better than diesel buses. As of July this year, BYD has provided 50,000 electric buses to the world. Among the eight subsidized models provided by the Japanese government for the introduction of electric buses, Chinese models account for seven. The only Japanese company is a start-up in Kitakyushu City, but the company is also currently entrusting production to China. The small bus that Hino Motors will put on the market in the near future is not independently developed, but also entrusted to BYD to manufacture.
Audi plans to stop producing fuel vehicles in 2033, and Volkswagen is also moving towards the era of electric vehicles. Audi announced on June 21 this year that it will stop producing diesel and gasoline vehicles in 2033, and plans to launch only new pure electric models from 2026, and gradually stop producing internal combustion engines before 2033; however, due to China’s demand Strong, Audi’s partner in China may continue to produce internal combustion vehicles after 2033. Audi has launched more new electric models this year than diesel and petrol models. Audi aims to have more than 20 electric car models by 2025. Volkswagen said earlier this year that it would spend 46 billion euros over the next five years to dominate the global electric vehicle market.
R & D investment
In order to accelerate the high-quality development of electric vehicles and lead the trend, relevant Chinese departments and enterprises attach great importance to R&D and technology investment. Some enterprises’ investment reaches or exceeds 5% of annual sales revenue, ranking among the top in the world. In September this year, China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd.’s new energy vehicle technology innovation base was completed and put into use in Tianjin. This is the latest new energy vehicle research and development base in the world, and it is also one of the largest and highest-grade ones in the world.
2. New energy vehicle market
According to the Swedish consulting company EV-volumes, the global sales of electric vehicles in 2020 will be 3.24 million. It is estimated that the world’s new energy vehicle production will exceed 17 million in 2025, and China will exceed 6.5 million. According to the data from the Passenger Passenger Association, the sales volume of passenger cars in May this year was 1.319 million units, and the sales volume of new energy vehicles was 322,000 units, a year-on-year increase of 79.4%, which was much larger than the sales growth of passenger cars. The sales volume of new energy vehicles has accounted for the total Passenger car sales accounted for 24.4%, an increase of 13.7 percentage points compared to the same period last year. With the rising proportion of new energy vehicle sales, charging stations have also become the focus. On May 18 this year, Juwan Technology announced that it has reached a strategic cooperation with Telephone New Energy Co., Ltd., and will build 1,000 super charging stations in cities across the country from 2022 to 2025, and build them in Guangdong by the end of 2023. , Hainan Province invested in the construction of 300 overcharge stations.
The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the Ministry of Commerce, and the Comprehensive Department of the National Energy Administration issued the “Notice on Carrying out the 2022 New Energy Vehicles to the Countryside Activities”, including 26 automobile manufacturers such as FAW Group, Dongfeng Motor, and Changan Automobile, and a total of 70 models under their banners. New energy vehicle models will participate in this activity, which will be held from May to December this year, in third- and fourth-tier cities in Shanxi, Jilin, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Henan, Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Hainan, Sichuan, Gansu, etc. county. In 2021, a total of 1.068 million new energy vehicles will be sold in the campaign to the countryside, a year-on-year increase of 169.2%, effectively boosting sales.
According to the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, China’s auto sales are expected to reach 27 million this year, a year-on-year increase of about 3%, including 23 million passenger cars and 5.5 million new energy vehicles, a year-on-year increase of more than 56%. In 2025, the amount of aluminum used in new energy vehicles can reach 1760kt. The International Energy Agency (IFA) predicts that the number of electric vehicles will rise to 145 million (under the stated policy scenario) or 230 million (under the sustainable development scenario) in 2030, accounting for 7% and 12% of road vehicles respectively. By 2030, the sales of new energy vehicles (pure electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles) will reach 50%. There will only be 10 million electric vehicles on the road in 2020.
It should be pointed out here that due to the battery, the mass of new energy vehicles is heavier than that of reference fuel vehicles. Studies have shown that if the mass of new energy vehicles is reduced by 100kg, the cruising range can be increased by 10% to 11%. The body is the largest part of the vehicle mass, and it is also the field with the greatest lightweight potential. Replacing ordinary steel with high-strength steel can reduce the quality 11%, the use of all-aluminum alloy can reduce 40%, which is the most desirable today and in the future. Of course, the use of composite materials and magnesium materials can further reduce the quality, but the author does not recommend them, one is because of their high price; the other is because magnesium is still unsatisfactory in terms of safety, even if “flame-retardant magnesium alloy” is used, It will also burn when the temperature is higher than its melting point. The author has had two fire incidents of magnesium alloy ingots in production.
In 2020, the State Council issued the “New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2021-2035)”, adhered to the development direction of electrification, networking, and intelligence, deeply implemented the national strategy for the development of new energy vehicles, and focused on integration and innovation. Make breakthroughs in key core technologies, improve basic industrial capabilities, build a new industrial ecology, improve the infrastructure system, optimize the industrial development environment, promote the high-quality and sustainable development of the new energy automobile industry, and accelerate the construction of a powerful automobile country. Led by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China, a large-scale joint research project of 500 experts lasted for one year in early 2019 – energy-saving and new energy vehicle technology roadmap, the goal is: by 2020, 2025, Annual sales are expected to reach 100,000, 5 million, and 15 million, respectively. The quantitative development goal of China’s auto industry in 2030 is to reduce the curb weight of vehicles by 35% compared with 2015, and to use 350kg of aluminum per vehicle. The author believes that the amount of aluminum used by a bicycle can actually reach 430kg, and the amount of aluminum used for composite materials is calculated at 85%.
3. Electric vehicles and aluminum
Electric vehicles should be all aluminum. The so-called all-aluminum is not that all parts and structural parts are made of aluminum alloy and aluminum-based composite materials, but refers to the existing technical conditions, full compliance with standards, and ensuring safety and riding comfort. Parts and structural parts made of various materials are prepared with it. The current electric vehicle systems that can be made of aluminum alloy include: body panels made of plates, body frames made of extruded materials, battery systems, anti-collision beam systems, motors and transmission systems.
The aluminum alloy body-in-white of passenger cars is mainly composed of front bumper beam assembly, front cabin assembly, left and right side panel assemblies, left and right door assemblies, front and rear floor assemblies, front and rear roof beam assemblies, front and rear water tank assemblies, etc. . The aluminum materials used mainly include plates, profiles, forgings, castings, etc. The forming methods include bending, stamping, and CNC processing, and the main connection methods include welding, screwing, and royal jointing.
Aluminum alloy panels for automobiles are all processed from aluminum alloy sheets. The panels are divided into outer panels and inner panels. The performance requirements for the outer panel are: high strength; good formability, with special emphasis on edge formability; excellent corrosion resistance. The requirements for the aluminum alloy material of the inner panel are: good deep drawability and excellent weldability. It is also required that the panels have good baking properties.
Plates for automobiles are mainly produced with 6016-T4/T4P, 6111-T4/T4P, 6014-T4/T4P, 6451-T4/T4P alloys, and a small amount of plates are produced with 5182-0 and 5754-0 alloys. The composition of 6111, 6014, and 6016 alloys is shown in Table 1. The 6111 alloy is an American alloy, which was registered in the Aluminum Association of America in 1982; the 6014 alloy was developed in Switzerland, and was registered in the Aluminum Association of America in 1983; the 6016 alloy is also a A Swiss alloy, formed in 1984 and registered with the Aluminum Institute of America.
4. Aluminum alloy parts for electric vehicles
Although the internal combustion engine (100kg) is removed from pure electric vehicles, the motor and battery system are replaced by about 300kg, so the net mass of electric vehicles is 200kg larger than that of fuel vehicles of the same level, so the weight reduction of electric vehicles is particularly important and urgent. North American cars use much more aluminum than China’s, which goes a long way toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In terms of the proportion of aluminum greenhouse gases in terms of process, the electrolysis process accounts for 77.60%, and if it is prepared with carbon anodes, it is more than 80%. Although the power consumption of China’s ton of aluminum electrolysis is lower than that of foreign countries, foreign countries have more electricity It is hydropower, so the carbon footprint is much lower than that of China.
In October 2019, the International Aluminum Association released the “Assessment Report on Aluminum Consumption in China’s Automobile Industry (2016-2030)” (hereinafter referred to as the “Report”) commissioned by China CM Consulting Company. The “Report” presents the results of a comprehensive assessment of the amount of aluminum used in China’s auto industry, including passenger cars, commercial vehicles (buses and trucks), special vehicles, two-wheelers and three-wheelers. The “Report” predicts that the amount of aluminum used in China’s auto industry will increase from 3800kt in 2018 to 9100kt in 2030, with a compound annual growth rate of 8.9%. The author estimates that the compound growth rate can be greater than 10%. The “Report” predicts that the aluminum consumption of trucks and new energy vehicles will reach 1400kt in 2030, with a compound annual growth rate of 11%. The author believes that the compound growth rate may be greater than 13%.
Typical aluminum alloy parts of new energy vehicles include roof and trunk lid, engine cover, coupling, bumper, body in white (except for opening and closing parts), heat exchanger, steering system, battery pack, transmission system, auxiliary Frame, suspension, brake system, fenders, front doors, rear doors, wheels, dashboard beams, heat shields.
Whether it is new energy vehicles or chemical fuel vehicles, more than 98% of aluminum alloy parts (according to quality) are made of cast aluminum alloys, strips, foils, extruded materials, and drawn materials, and the amount of forgings is very high. less, only about 1%. If the wheels are forged, the net mass of the forgings will be larger, but forged wheels are only used for racing cars and buses, almost no passenger cars and trucks are used, and low-pressure cast wheels are used.
Audi A8-BMW7 series, FORDF-150 pickup truck body
The Audi A8 passenger car is the first all-aluminum passenger car launched in the world. It uses a large amount of aluminum alloy. Its covering parts are all stamped with ABS. Made of alloy extrusions. The BMW7 series cars of BMW Motor Company and the FORD F-150 cars of Ford Motor Company are all aluminum.
The car body is composed of a skeleton and a body cover. The cover, such as the bonnet and the tailgate, is stamped with 6000 series alloy sheets, such as 6016, 6022, 6111-T4/T4P alloy stamping (their mechanical properties See Table 2). The elastic modulus of aluminum alloy is only 1/3 of that of steel, and the yield strength is about 1/2 of that of steel. Therefore, the dent resistance is far inferior to that of steel, and the thickness of the workpiece plate should be 40% to 50% larger than that of the steel plate. The density is only 1/3 of the steel density, but the aluminum alloy workpiece is only about 50% lighter than the steel one.
Aluminum alloy automobile panels have not been widely used at present, and the high cost is the main reason. The price of aluminum alloy plate is about 35 yuan/kg-40 yuan/kg higher than that of steel plate; the manufacturing cost of aluminum alloy parts is about 15 yuan higher than that of steel parts. % or more; during car maintenance, Chinese car mechanics have not fully mastered the maintenance and repair of aluminum sheet metal parts, and often replace them with new whole parts. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop ABS alloys and processes with higher performance and lower production and maintenance costs to expand the application of aluminum materials in automobiles. Whether it is now or in the foreseeable period, if each car currently uses 10kg more aluminum per year, it will consume 500kt more aluminum per year, which shows that the automobile industry has great potential for aluminum consumption.
The automobile anti-collision system can be made of steel or aluminum. The anti-collision system is composed of anti-collision beams and energy-absorbing boxes. The aluminum alloys used are 6000 series and 7000 series extruded materials. The mass of the steel anti-collision system is 9.45kg, and that of aluminum alloy is 4.7kg. The tensile strength of the 6000 series aluminum alloy profiles used for the energy-absorbing box is ≥350MPa, and the yield strength is 300MPa.
The front sub-frame mainly includes front and rear beam
The instrument panel beam (CCB, cross car beam) is geners, left and right longitudinal beams and accessories, and the accessories include engine suspension brackets, control arm brackets, steering gear mounting brackets, etc.
dashboard beamally made of steel, with a mass of 13.49kg. After the automobile business department of Liaoning Zhongwang Group Co., Ltd. was changed to aluminum alloy extruded profiles, the quality dropped to 7.3kg, a weight loss of 46%. The reinforcing beam of the steel instrument panel cross beam is made of two sections of tailor-welded, 2mm thick, and 4kg in weight. After being prepared by an aluminum alloy extruded profile with a thickness of 3mm, the quality drops to 2.3kg, and the process is simplified and the weight is reduced. 42.5%.
The water-cooling motor housing (water-cooling motor housing) appeared with the advent of new energy vehicles. It uses cooling water to flow through the inner cavity to achieve a significant cooling effect. It can withstand 3.5Pa pressure without cracking. It is an integral aluminum housing. Alloy extrusions can prevent fires caused by motor overheating, and can effectively eliminate potential safety hazards caused by overheating.
Battery pack, battery pack frame, water cooling plate
The battery system is the energy supply system of electric vehicles and plays a very important role. It consists of lithium-ion batteries (LIB), battery packs (battery), battery pack frames (beams, longitudinal beams, brackets), bushings, and positioning pins. The performance comparison of steel and aluminum battery pack frames is as follows:
In the air conditioner, the air compressor is the most critical part. According to the different production companies, the swash plate (swash plate), vane (vane), and volute (scroll) can have different types, all of which are made of high-strength Aluminum alloy die-casting, but the swash plate is also forged, and the condenser and evaporator of the heat exchanger are made of aluminum alloy.
The brake caliper is a key part related to safety. The brake calipers of racing cars and sports cars are forged from aluminum alloy, which can have high braking performance under high speed and heavy load conditions. The brake components work under high temperature conditions, because the brake pads and brake discs will generate a lot of heat due to friction, which will increase the temperature, and the brake parts must be forged with heat-resistant aluminum alloy.
power control device
The power control unit (power control unit) is to adjust the power source and the voltage to match the value, and convert the direct current into alternating current. Hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles are equipped with electric motors, so there is a set of power control system, which is composed of inverter, power converter, direct current/alternating current (DC/AC) converter and other control systems, supporting their operation by a Set of double-sided cooling module control made of aluminum alloy.
The aluminum alloy heat exchanger is a very important device in the car. It can dissipate heat. It is light, efficient, durable, and beautiful. Many radiators are made of thin aluminum sheets and small aluminum tubes covered with brazing layers. The heat generated by the engine is transferred to the radiator to keep the engine working in an efficient temperature range. The condenser in the radiator is the element of the air conditioner that sucks heat from the refrigerated air. In addition, the evaporator is also a heat exchanger that evaporates the liquefied refrigerant. There is also an intercooler in the system to reduce the hot air temperature.
Automotive shock absorbers are made of high-strength aluminum alloys for racing cars and sports cars. The shape of the shock absorber greatly dampens shocks because it induces high damping forces in the oil flow channels. The single-tube shock absorber has a single-wall structure in the piston, which can be divided into a series of oil chambers and air chambers through the floating piston. The double-tube shock absorber has a double-layer structure of inner and outer tubes, the lower part of the inner and outer tubes is filled with oil, and the upper part is filled with air.
The subframe (subframe) is a structural member of the car, which transmits power and drives, and also acts as a body frame to withstand horizontal and vertical forces from the ground. The sub-frame is made of high-strength aluminum alloy sheet, which can reduce weight on the one hand and increase the rigidity of the frame on the other hand.
The suspension arm/link (suspension arm/link) is one of the key components of the car. It determines the position of the wheels, transmits power from the wheels to the body, and determines the movement form of the suspension and stabilizes the body. The workpieces made of aluminum alloy include Hub carrier, steering knuckie, etc.
A turbocharger (turbocharger) can also be called a turbocharged engine, which consists of a turbine and an impeller. The turbine is driven by the exhaust gases from the engine, which turns the impeller and compresses the air to flow into the engine. The impeller is forged from aluminum alloy and mechanically pressed.
New energy vehicle thermal management system
Compared with traditional cars, the main difference is that the battery is used as the power to drive the car. Due to the limitation of the battery life and the requirements of emission reduction, the mass of the battery system is large, so the mass of the electric car is lower than the net mass of the traditional fuel white car. It’s about 200kg tall, so lightweighting is a top priority. Aluminum has also become the preferred material in automotive power systems (engines, gearboxes, suspension systems, steering systems, braking systems), thermal management systems (air conditioning pipelines, evaporator condensers, water tanks, oil heaters, etc.) , Body systems are widely used. According to a survey by the European Aluminum Association (FAA) and Duke Consulting Company (Duker), the amount of aluminum used in passenger car thermal management systems + battery pack cooling systems in Europe in 2019 is 19kg/vehicle. If China’s passenger car production is calculated as 24.5 million this year, their thermal management systems will use about 470kt of aluminum, including about 235kt of rolled materials and about 235kt of aluminum alloy pipes.
The aluminum materials used in the thermal management system of the new energy vehicle battery pack include cold-drawn tubes for liquid cooling system pipelines, extruded profiles for the cooling plate at the lower part of the battery or aluminum alloy brazing plates, and porous MPE extrusions on the side of the battery. cooling tube. The cold-drawn tubes used in the thermal management system include coiled tubes and straight tubes one by one. The aluminum alloy cold-drawn extruded heat exchange tubes produced by Jiangsu Asia Pacific Light Alloy Technology Co., Ltd. include 6063-IHX coaxial heat exchange tubes. , 5049 cold-drawn seamless pipe, 3003 cold-drawn air-conditioning pipe, 3003 cold-drawn water tank pipe, etc. Aluminum Industry of China can produce aluminum alloy cold-drawn tubes of various specifications, which can meet the needs of all industrial sectors, with a production capacity of more than 800kt/a.
The chemical composition of the cold-drawn aluminum alloy heat exchange tubes of the European Aluminum Association is shown in Table 3, which are 3000 series, 5000 series and 6000 series alloys. Their mechanical, chemical, physical and technological properties can meet the requirements of cold-drawn heat exchange tubes. Bending processing plastic deformation and brazing characteristics. The main strengthening elements of the alloy are Mg, Mn, Si, and Zn, which tend to cause stress corrosion cracking and should be limited. Fe can cause local pitting corrosion and needs to be strictly controlled.
For heat exchange cold-drawn aluminum alloy tubes, SWAAT (ASTM G85 A3, corrosion solution pH 2.8-3.0, cyclic spray) or CASS (ASTM B368, corrosion solution pH 3.1) should be carried out no matter in the development process or in the mass production stage. ~3.3, continuous spraying), a certain number of samples are required to have no corrosion leakage after the test.
The tray is used to place and protect the battery system. It is one of the important components of the electric vehicle. It is composed of structural parts such as the bottom plate, side beams, and lifting lugs. It is made of aluminum alloy. Its quality depends on the model and battery life. The single mass is 40kg ~80kg, aluminum alloy extruded profiles are used, the alloys are 6063, 6061, 6005, 6082, etc., which can be divided into 40kg, 60kg and 80kg grades. The main companies used: the 40kg class is Xinwangda, BYD, etc., the 60kg class is Lingpao, Mavericks and other models, and the 80kg class is mainly NIO, Geely, etc.
Aluminum gold forging
Whether it is traditional gasoline vehicles or new energy vehicles, aluminum alloy forgings are rare and small. Less means that the number of forgings used on a single vehicle is very small, generally 12, and the most will not exceed 20; small means that the weight of a single piece is light, and the total mass does not exceed 1.2% of the total weight of the vehicle. At the same time, only some small parts of the suspension system and transmission system are forged with aluminum alloy, such as the wheels of racing cars and buses are forged, but more than 98% of the wheels of passenger cars and commercial vehicles are made of aluminum alloy low-pressure casting.
The development of electric vehicles in China has entered a new stage. Its goal is: by 2025, the proportion of new energy vehicle sales will reach 20%. The most gratifying thing is that China is likely to achieve this goal 3 years ahead of schedule. Although China is already the world’s largest new energy vehicle market, it is still one of the fastest growing. Sales are expected to double this year to about 6 million vehicles, more than the rest of the world combined. It’s not just car sales that are booming in China. It is also a leader in the field of battery manufacturing, CATL and BYD are the two largest manufacturing companies.
Strong demand for electric vehicles is one of the bright spots in China’s economy. Chinese authorities said they would extend the vehicle purchase tax exemption for new energy vehicles until 2023. In public parking lots, EVs can still enjoy 2 hours of free parking. China has done a better job than foreign countries at integrating new technologies such as entertainment features and voice control into cars. China’s aluminum industry has made great contributions to the development of the new energy automobile industry, and all aluminum materials needed can be supplied in time.
Post time: Apr-10-2023